Vatnajökull Ice Cap

Vatnajökull is a typical temperate ice cap composed of ice domes and numerous out­let glaciers, some of which surge at irregular intervals. Vatnajökull ice cap is about 7700 km2 (and covers about 8% of Iceland) and is still Europe’s largest ice cap by volume, although it has lost more than 15% of its volume during the last century.

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